2D and 3D Numerical Simulation of Dam-Break Flooding: A Case Study of the Tuzluca Dam, Turkey
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Citationby Cagri Akgun 1,*ORCID,Salim Serkan Nas 2 andAkin Uslu 2 1 Igdir Vocational School of Higher Education, Igdir University, 76000 Igdir, Turkey 2 Civil Engineering Department, Gumushane University, 29100 Gumushane, Turkey* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Water 2023, 15(20), 3622; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203622
Unlike river floods, floods caused by dam breaks occur much more abruptly and at higher water velocities. The failure of a dam due to any reason can pose a significant threat to settlements in the downstream area due to the high volume of water in its reservoir. In this case study, 2D and 3D numerical failure simulations of Tuzluca Dam, to be built in the Igdir province of Turkey, was performed using the Flow3D Hydro software. The Shallow Water and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were used to simulate flood propagation. In the numerical models, RNG k-ε was chosen as the turbulence model. In the analyses carried out under different scenarios, it was observed that in both methods (2D and 3D), significant flood depths would occur in two downstream village settlements. Within the scope of the study, the mortality rates in different dam-break scenarios of the Tuzluca Dam were also investigated. It has been observed that the dam failure time and breach geometry have a significant impact on the flood propagation and the loss of life in settlements. Additionally, a dam-break experiment in literature dam-break experiment was numerically solved using the Flow3D Hydro software to validate the numerical model, and a satisfactory harmony was observed between the experimental results and the numerical models. Although the 3D analysis provided a more accurate representation of the experimental results, it took approximately 20 times longer to complete the dam failure simulation in the case study compared to the 2D model. As a result, it has been determined that for comprehensive studies such as those of dam failures, 2D analyses may be more practical, while for smaller-scale scenarios or situations requiring greater precision, 3D modelling is appropriate. © 2023 by the authors.