The Eastern Black Sea-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits: Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and an overview of the geodynamics of ore genesis
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The Meso-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern Pontides orogenic belt provides a key to evaluate the volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits associated with convergent margin tectonics in a Cordilleran-type orogenic belt. Here we present new geological, geochemical and zircon U-Pb geochronological data, and attempt to characterize the metallogeny through a comprehensive overview of the important VMS mineralizations in the belt. The VMS deposits in the northern part of the eastern Pontides orogenic belt occur in two different stratigraphic horizons consisting mainly of felsic volcanic rocks within the late Cretaceous sequence. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb analyses from ore-bearing dacites yield weighted mean Pb-206/U-238 ages ranging between 91.1 +/- 1.3 and 82.6 +/- 1 Ma. The felsic rocks of first and second horizons reveal geochemical characteristics of subduction-related calc-alkaline and shoshonitic magmas, respectively, in continental arcs and represent the immature and mature stages of a late Cretaceous magmatic arc. The nature of the late Cretaceous magmatism in the northern part of the eastern Pontides orogenic belt and the various lithological associations including volcaniclastics, mudstones and sedimentary facies indicate a rift-related environment where dacitic volcanism was predominant. The eastern Pontides VMS deposits are located within the caldera-like depressions and are closely associated with dome-like structures of felsic magmas, with their distribution controlled by fracture systems. Based on a detailed analyses of the geological, geophysical and geodynamic information, we propose that the VMS deposits were generated either in intra arc or near arc region of the eastern Pontides orogenic belt during the southward subduction of the Tethys oceanic lithosphere. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.