Determination of geological structures by geophysical and geotechnical techniques in Kirklartepe Dam Site (Turkey)
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In foundation research of engineering structures, application of geophysics methods before drilling work allows not only more economical studies but also a more detailed determination of underground sections. Especially in pre-feasibility studies on long tunnel routes, dam sites and lake areas, it has a vital importance in terms of structural safety to determine possible underground buried fault lines, lithology changes, anticlinal-synclinal structures and underground openings. By considering these effective factors, the alluvium/bedrock border and the positions of potential buried faults in the dam site and lake area in the Kirklartepe area of the province of Bayburt in northeastern Turkey were determined by comparison with geophysical and geotechnical methods. First of all, the resistivity of the dam axis location and the change of the V-p wave velocity by depth were determined by comparing the results between geophysical methods of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT), respectively. Afterwards, from the foundation boreholes opened in the dam axis location, joint frequency and the other parameters determined by observations were obtained. With these parameters, 2-dimensional zoning profiles of the dam axis location were formed, and the alluvium-bedrock border and the locations of the buried faults were determined. Two potential faults in the NW-SE direction relative to the location of the dam axis were clearly revealed in the zoning profiles obtained in the ERT and SRT measurements. Additionally, the presence of these faults was determined as a result of examining the separation and joint frequency parameters from the drilling core samples collected from the BH_3 and BH_5 boreholes opened in the investigated area based on changes in the vertical and horizontal directions. In addition to these, in the ERT study, two potential faults other than the determined two were also detected. It was seen in the zoning profiles that these faults corresponded to right under the BH_2 borehole and 60 m SW of the BH_6 drilling. Consequently, in the zoning studies conducted at the examined site, the change in the lithology at the dam axis by depth (alluvium-bedrock border), lateral correlations of boreholes and potential faults were determined. It was recommended for the selected dam axis location to be constructed at a more suitable place in the NW direction in terms of engineering. Furthermore, with this study, it was revealed once again that it is highly essential to use geophysical and geotechnical together in conceptualizing large engineering structure projects. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.