The effect of expressed breast milk, swaddling and facilitated tucking methods in reducing the pain caused by orogastric tube insertion in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial
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Background: Orogastric tube feeding is used to support the nutrition of preterm infants. Although nonpharmacological methods are effective in reducing the pain caused by orogastric tube insertion, only limited studies have been found addressing this pain. No study has used combined nonpharmacological methods to reduce this orogastric tube insertion pain. Objective: This randomized controlled study aims to compare the effects of expressed breast milk, swaddling, facilitated tucking, expressed breast milk+ swaddling, expressed breast milk-facilitated tucking and routine care methods on preterm infant pain and the physiological parameters (i.e., heart rate, oxygen saturation) before, during and after orogastric tube insertion procedures. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Three level III neonatal intensive care units in Turkey. Method: Preterm infants born at 32-34 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to six groups: routine care (n = 33), swaddling (n = 30), facilitated tucking (n = 32), expressed breast milk (n = 31), swaddling+expressed breast milk group (n = 30), and facilitated tucking+expressed breast milk group (n = 31). Orogastric tube insertion included four phases: baseline (the last one minute of 30 min without stimuli), the insertion, recovery (one minute after insertion), and recovery (two minutes after insertion). The four phases were videotaped. Premature infant pain profile score, heart rate and oxygen saturation were assessed by two independent evaluators who were blinded to the purpose of the study. Data were assessed by analysis of variance for the multiple repeated measurements, bonferroni and generalised estimating equation logistic regression. Results: There was a significant main effect of the intervention groups for all the pain and physiological parameters (heart rate: F = 3.99, p = 0.001; oxygen saturation: F = 5.22, p<0.001; pain profile 1 score: F = 9.55, p<0.001; pain profile 2 score: F = 9.74, p<0.001). The use of the nonpharmacological methods combined or alone was more effective in reducing infants' pain profile score and physiological variables than routine care. Infants receiving swaddling-pexpressed breast milk had significantly lower pain profile scores during the insertion (phase2) (5.2 +/- 1.7) than those receiving routine care (9.5 +/- 3.6), swaddling (8.8 +/- 2.9), facilitated tucking (7.2 +/- 3.2), expressed breast milk (7.9 +/- 2.6), facilitated tucking-pexpressed breast milk (6.6 +/- 2.3) (p<0.001). The breast milk group had 6.195 times more pain than the swaddling+expressed breast milk, while the facilitated tucking group had 6.301, the facilitated tucking+expressed breast milk group had 3.107, the control group had 13.015, and the swaddling group had 7.892 times more pain. Conclusion: The swaddling-pexpressed breast milk method is clinically better pain relief nonpharmalogical option and is the recommended method to nurses for the orogastric tube insertion procedures, preterm infants. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.