Evaluation of potentially toxic element contents and Pb isotopic compositions in Ankara Stream sediments within an urban catchment in central Turkey
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This study aimed to interpret the spatial distribution, enrichment factor (EF), and geo-accumulation of potentially toxic elements in the bed sediments (ASBS) and Pleistocene-aged overbank sediments (ASOS) of the Ankara Stream in Turkey. The potential toxic pollution of the investigated potentially toxic elements was defined by evaluating the EF, geo-accumulation index (I-geo), and Pb anthropogenic contribution. The distributions of As, Ni, and Co in the analyzed sediments were uniform in the ASBS and ASOS along the length of the stream. The EF and Igeo values indicated that ASBS and ASOS were significantly polluted by As and Ni and moderately polluted by Co, Zn, and Cu. ASBS was locally strongly polluted by Pb and Cd. Pb anthropogenic contribution was estimated at an average of >100% in the ASBS and ASOS. The potentially toxic element levels and distribution patterns revealed that industrial activities, gasoline combustion, vehicular emission, phosphate fertilizers and natural sources were probable causes of metal pollution in Ankara Stream sediments. These potentially toxic elements were transported by atmospheric conditions and stream water. The potentially toxic elements in Ankara Stream increased with each passing day and were important in evaluating the potential toxicity risks to living organisms. Thus, suitable measures should be taken to ensure appropriate treatment of wastewater before toxic residues are disposed into the nearby stream. Chimney filter, treatment plants, and appropriate technology should be used in the organized industrial zone to prevent atmospheric pollution.