Geothermal energy for clean and sustainable development in Turkey
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Turkey has a limited amount of fossil fuel reserve, thus is dependent on foreign energy. Approximately 75% of current energy consumption is met by imports. However, Turkey has a high potential of renewables such as biomass, hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal energy, but the current utilization rate of these resources is very low. Turkey is rich in geothermal energy resources. It ranks seventh in the world for this type of energy resource and among the top five for geothermal heat and thermal spring applications (electricity generation, heating and cooling homes and greenhouses, drying, thermal tourism, balneological use, mineral extraction, agricultural and aquaculture applications, etc.). Interest in this energy field is rising due to government support for renewables. An overview of geothermal energy in Turkey is presented and its potential is evaluated. The study aims to contribute to the future developments of this energy technology in Turkey, with some barriers also considered.