18. YÜZYILIN İLK YARISINDA EFLAK VE BOĞDAN ÜZERİNDE OSMANLI-AVUSTURYA MÜCADELESİNE DAİR ANONİM BİR ESER: VAK?Yİ?-İ EFLAK
AuthorTürkal, Merve Karaçay
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Osmanlılar tarafından "memleketeyn" tabiriyle de ifade edilen Eflak ve Boğdan 14. yüzyılın sonlarıyla 15. yüzyılın başlarında Osmanlı Devleti'nin hâkimiyeti altına girmişlerdir. Daha önce bulundukları bölgede bağımsız birer beylik olan Eflak ve Boğdan, haraç ödemek suretiyle Osmanlı yönetimi altına girmiş ve imtiyazlı birer beylik statüsünde olmuşlardır. Bunların dinî, siyasî ve içtimaî yapılarına müdahale etmeyen Osmanlı Devleti, bölgedeki soylu ailelerden seçtiği voyvodaları yönetimin başına getirmiştir. Zaman zaman Osmanlı Devleti'nden ayrılma girişimleri ve bazı Avrupalı devletlerle ittifak etmeleri sebebiyle Osmanlı Devleti yeni bir strateji geliştirerek Eflak ve Boğdan'ın yönetimi için İstanbul'da yaşayan Fenerli Rumlardan seçtiği kişileri buraya idareci olarak tayin etmeye başlamıştır. Söz konusu uygulama 1711 tarihinden 1821'deki Mora isyanına kadar devam etmiştir. Bu çalışmada müellifi belli olmayan Vak?yi?-i Eflak isimli eser ele alınmıştır. Eserde Avusturya ve Macar kuvvetlerinin Eflak beyini esir almaları ve Boğdan beyini de ele geçirmek için uğraşmaları karşısında, İstanbul'dan Boğdan beyine yardım için gönderilen Kostantin İbsilanti ile Boğdan Beyi Mihal'in düşmana karşı birlikte verdikleri mücadele yer almaktadır. Bu eser aynı zamanda muasır Osmanlı kaynaklarında yer almayan bir olayı ihtiva etmesi ve dönemin tarihine ışık tutması açısından önemli bir yere sahiptirWallachia and Moldavia which also called “memleketeyn” came under the rule of the Ottoman State between the end of 14th century and the early of 15th century. Wallachia and Moldavia which were independent in the region beforehand, came under the rule of the Ottoman government by paying land taxes and became privileged principalities. Ottoman State which didn’t interfere in those religious, political and social structures, put into power the voivodes selected from noble families in the region. Ottoman State began to apoint the executives picked from Romans who live in the Fener district of Istanbul by adopting a new strategy because they occasionally made attemps to seperate from Ottomans and become an ally of some European states. The said administiration system lasted from 1711 to 1821. This article will analyze the manuscript named Vak?yi?-i Eflak which its author is not known. It is told Moldavia’s Mihal Bey’s struggle together with Constantine Ypsilantis who was sent from Istanbul to help Moldavia’s Bey against the enemy because Austria and Hungary forces held Wallachia’s Bey captive and tried to capture Moldavia’s Bey in the work. The manuscript is a significant work since it contains an incident which wasn’t told in Ottoman history books and enlighten history of the period During the Ottoman period, Wallachia was located between the Carpathian Mountains and the Danube River in the south of today’s Romania, and the Moldavia was located between the Danube and the Black Sea. When the Ottoman Empire conquered Hungary in the 16h century (1526), the sovereignty claims of the Hungarians on Wallachia and Moldavia became ineffective, and at the same time, the Ottoman Empire increased its influence on Wallachia and Moldavia. Throughout the 17th century, Wallachia and Moldavia were governed by native dynasties as the subject of the Ottoman State. However, together with being tied to the Ottoman government, they were also in touch with neighbouring princes and kings and helping them. After the treaty of Karlowitz, Poland’s losing its former influence and the Russians coming up to the borders of the Moldavia and at the same time the Russians taking a protector role on the Orthodox Christians, the dynasties of Wallachia and Moldavia leaned the Russians. During the period of the Ahmed III (1703-1730), to rule the Wallachia and the Moldavia better, it was decided that the Rum Governors, which would be under the control of the Ottoman Empire, should be appointed to these principalities against the danger of Russia and Austria in the region. This process, which started in 1711 and continued until 1821, was called period of Fenerian Rum Governors. In our study, the events of the year 1617 are mentioned which is accepted as the beginning years of the Fenerian Rum Governors’ being appointed to Memleketeyn. During the period of Sultan Ahmed III, Constantin İbsilanti in Istanbul was commissioned by the Ottoman State as a side to the Moldavia Voivode Mihal Bey. The subject of this text contains the heroism of the two of them together in the face of Austria. In 1717 (1129), the Austrian forces captured the Temesvar Castle, invaded of Black Wallachia and hold Iskerletoglu Nikola captive with his family and took him to Erdel. Then a number of Austrian soldiers, moving together Brasov fortress guards and Hungarian catasters entered the Kasin Monastery near Hungarian and Bulgarian border and hurt the people living in the area. At the same time, they captured voivode of Wallachia and were tried to capture Bulgarian Voivode Mihal Bey. When they demanded tribute via the letter they wrote to Mihal Bey, Mihal Bey and his deputy, Hatman Constantin, consulted and decided that it would be more appropriate not to respond to the letter. Thereupon, the enemy forces moving together with Captain France who was in charge of the Nemce palace, captured Mihal Bey and Hatman Constantin. Mihal Bey, who had found a chance to get rid of their hands, asked for help by sending news to the Tatars in Bucak. Thereupon, the Austrian forces were defeated in a battle that began with the aid of a number of Tatar troops. General Tipe, knowing that his power would not be enough to capture the country of the Moldavia, was demanding tribute from the people of the Moldavia. On the other side, with the help of Captain France, he managed to capture the sister of the Moldavia Governor. However, after a short time, this prisoned lady managed to escape from the prison that she was held to the brothers’ side. She told her brother that everyday a bazaar was built in castle and the variety of goods and the animals there were supplied by the people of Hungary and Moldavia. As a result of this Moldavia governor acted to punish these people and eliminate the problem. Initially, it was necessary to remove the Austrian and katana soldiers from the Kasin Monastery in the Moldavia lands. Then he sent a message to the people of Tatar and the people of Moldavia, who lives on the other side of the Siret River, asked for help. Moldavia people didn't take care of the letter that came from the governor. But the Tatars came with ten thousand soldiers against the demand of two thousand soldiers. The Moldavia governor who was disturbed by such a large number of soldiers, informed them that they could harm the people of Moldavia, and the Tatar miracles gave written assurances that they never had such intentions. On February 13, the Moldavia governor and the Tatar soldiers moved together into the town of Yas. After taking some of the katans that he had captured on the road and killing some of them, while they were encircling the Kasin Monastery, the Moldavia governor noticed the lack of Tatars. After making a little research he learned that they were also about to plunder the Moldavia country and capture whom they took on the roads. In this case, Mihal Bey, who had to remove the siege, requested help from the Ottoman State to return the fortresses and prisoners of the Tatars. Although the rescript came out as they wanted from Istanbul, the problem could not be solved completely. On May 21, 1717, Mihal Bey and Constantine Hatman decided to collect troops to clear the Moldavia lands from the enemy. They also sent message to Azamet Giray Sultan and requested four hundred soldiers who was a head soldier in the province of Bucak. At this time, the letter from the Ottoman State stated that there were one thousand in the Mira Monastery in Moldavia, two thousand in Kasin Monastery, and seven hundred enemies in Foksan Monastery. As a result of this the governor of Moldavia, in a hurry, he walked on Mira Monastery with Constantine Hatman and four hundred Tatar soldiers on May 31. In the battle here, the Bulgarian military won. The Tatar soldiers who fell behind the escaped ones, took some prisoners from the people of Wallachia along with the captain of Foksan. But Constantin Hatman rescued these prisoners from the hands of the Tatars and sent them back to Foksan. Mihal Bey, who spent two days in Mira Monastery and then went to Udupest and stayed there for three days, cheered on his soldiers not to touch the innocent people with the rebels, bringing the enemy troops with the rebels, but the Tatar military did not come back from harming the innocent citizen when he had the opportunity. Three days later they found it empty when they reached the Kasin Monastery. As the message came from the Ottoman Government, they were ordered to enter the Hungarian country together with Azamet Giray Sultan, Kolchak Aga and Ejderhas. Mihal Beg and Hatman Costantin, who took Giray Sultan to their side, met with Kolcak Aga in Buvsan. General Ejderhas was about to move from Hotin. Together with his 3600 cavalier, there were 900 soldiers of Giray Sultan and 700 soldiers of Kolchak Aga with the governor of Moldavia. Because of the possibility of enemy's being aware of them when they wait, they decided to act immediately. The next day they were on the road towards to Bistricca Castle. Along the way Tatar and Kolchak Aga soldiers burned the villagers and slaughtered the elderly, women and children. Franco and his brother Altman, who were the captains of the Bistricce Castle that they met in a throat, were taken captive and continued on their way. Three days later they reached the castle and sieged it. The Tatar military was withdrawn during the siege, which lasted until the evening. That's why they said they planned to go to Maramuros the next day. Even though it was said by the governor of Moldavia that the Ottoman Empire was in agreement with Poland and that it was within the boundaries of the Leh, the Tatars were told that they would leave the Ottoman Empire in a difficult situation, but the Tatars did not listen and they stated that they had no idea other than plunder. They even proposed to the Moldavia governor to come with them. When the governor and the people beside him did not accept this offer, the he pulled off to Maramuros with the troops under his command. Even though the governor and the people beside them continue to siege the castle at night, they were forced to retreat after the decision of withdrawal the next day. After passing Kosna Water, they were encountered here by Ejderhas and his 120 soldiers. The following evening they reached Kumpulak's range and stayed there that night. The next day, the Moldavia governor received a letter from Yanaki, the son of Constantine Hatman, who left him as his deputy. In the letter, the group of Austrian and cataclysm was informed that they entered the country of Moldavia and attacked the people there. The governor immediately reach the town of Yas and asked the residents to go to the place called Cocura with all civil ones. He said they would be safe there. The Moldavia Voivode Mihal Beg immediately began to supply troops again and on the other hand tried to take measures by appointing captains to the areas on the other side of the Siret River. Enemies are aware of these preparations and returned. But on the way back, they plundered the goods of the people. Mihal Bey, who heard this, ordered the soldiers to follow-up, and the soldiers who followed them took back the goods and animals of the Moldavia people. Mihal stated that they would accept the apology of the enemy declaring their apology and never send such movements again, otherwise the Ottoman State would send so much Tatar troops to help him. Upon this, Mihal Bey, a Brasov general, was answered and a friendship treaty was signed. On the other hand, Tatarian forces going towards Maramuros arrived Polish border passing Hungarian land. Having been defeated by Polish forces in the border, they run away towards mountains. When they encountered katana forces in a narrow pass that time, they stuck in a difficult situation against firearms of katan forces. They escaped to Kumpulak region leaving most of the goods and slaves they looted. They reached Bucak passing from Moldavia. In that period, many events happened in modern day Moldova lands and Moldavia governor and Constantin Hatman made a stand against enemy together. Writer of Vak?yi?-i Eflak which is the subject of our study is unknown. The subject of work focuses on rebels of Austrians against the voivode of Moldavia Mihail as a result of capturing the voivode of Walachia. Therefore, we consider that the name of work could be as Vak?yi?-i Moldavia rather than Vak?yi?-i Eflak. The work is registered in “Millet Kütüphanesi, Ali Emirî, History, No: 80” and written in naskh script and it is 20 leaves.