Novel eugenol derivatives: Potent acetylcholinesterase and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
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Eugenol was used as starting material to obtain some phenolic compounds. The synthesis of these phenolic compounds was performed in a two-step procedure. The structures of the formed products (novel eugenol derivatives 1-6) have been determined on the basis of NMR spectroscopy and other spectroscopic methods. The compounds were tested in terms of carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition potency. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 126.96.36.199) are metalloenzymes, which catalyse the reaction between carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), to generate bicarbonate (HCO3-) and protons (H+). CO2, HCO3- and H+ are essential molecules and ions for many important physiologic processes occurring in all living organisms. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C.188.8.131.52) is found in high concentrations in the red blood cells and brain. Novel eugenol derivatives (1-6) were tested for the inhibition of two cytosolic CA isoforms 1, and II (hCA I, and II) and AChE. These compounds demonstrated effective inhibitory profiles with Ki values in ranging of 113.48-738.69 nM against hCA I, 92.35-530.81 nM against hCA II, and 90.10-379.57 nM against AChE, respectively. On the other hand, acetazolamide clinically used as CA inhibitor, shoed Ki value of 594.11 nM against hCA I, and 120.68 nM against hCA II, respectively. Also, AChE was inhibited by tacrine as an AChE inhibitor at the 71.18 nM level. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.