Lithostratigraphy, facies, and deposition environment of the lower Jurassic Ammonitico Rosso type sediments (ARTS) in the Gumushane area, NE Turkey: Implications for the opening of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys Ocean
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Ammonitico Rosso type sediments (ARTS) form the bottom level of the Senkoy Formation in the Gumushane area. The formation accumulated in the rift-related basins triggered by extensional tectonic regimes in the Early Jurassic times. Six different sections were studied in this area in order to interpret the lithostratigraphy, facies, and deposition environments of the ARTS. Two basic lithofacies were distinguished, nodular-marly and nodular-calcareous. These facies provide useful information regarding depositional conditions in the area and environmental energy. These factors were mainly related to the relative sea-level that in turn was controlled by tectonic and eustasy conditions. In addition, seven different types of microfacies were recognized and described as a result of the detailed analysis of the sections. The results of the analysis show that these sediments in the Gumushane area were developed in transgressive phases/events. These sediments share characteristics with other peri-Mediterranean regions and sea-level curves, and show a similarity to the major transgressive pulse during the Pliensbachian stage. Deposition of ARTS was controlled by syn-depositional extensional movements, leading to their accumulation on top of tilted blocks, slopes and horsts in an open marine environment. The ARTS were developed during the rifting of the continental margins pointing up the phases of the Tethys opening. Neptunian dykes verifying this opening developed at different levels of the ARTS and were filled with overlying sediments. These results support the hypothesis that the ARTS were formed in tectonically active environments where extensional tectonic movements were continuously improved during the deposition of the ARTS. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.