Main reasons of government reforms in Turkey and the legislation/reform efforts between 1990 and 2007
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Introduction In today’s world where the idea of “the only thing that does not change is change itself” comes true, dazzling developments in the economic, technological, political, social, and cultural areas materialize, and administrative and economic transformations occur in parallel with these developments. The fact that the wind of change and transformation took place all over the world forced the countries to embrace this wind, and with this effect, the countries with the fear of falling behind began to redesign their economic, political, and administrative structures within the framework of this transformation. In this direction, various modern management approaches have been applied in different countries. Concepts such as total quality management, strategic management, learning organization, and accountability started to be used in the public administration of countries. “New Public Management Approach” which emerged in the international arena especially after the 1980s directs the reform efforts of the countries. In Turkey, citizens from the politicians, businessmen, and scientists to the bureaucrats, small shopkeepers, and ordinary people express that there is a need for the re-arrangement of public sphere, and public sphere needs to be designed in such a way that it provides services at a sufficient and effective level (Parlak, 2005: 182). Historically, the reform efforts in Turkey started in Ottoman Empire time. Reform efforts took the form of westernization after the political reforms made in the Ottoman Empire in 1839 (called Tanzimat in Turkish). Reform efforts did not change its…. © Peter Lang GmbH Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften Berlin 2019.